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This document provides research information and resources on cold plasma ozone generators, UV ozone generators, "cold spark" generators, and other ozone technologies. We endevour to completely demystify ozone generator technologies, to allow individuals to gain a true understanding of the differences in equipment. We receive alot of emails from people who are given extremely misleading information by companies selling various technologies. We do not mention any of these misleading companies in this article.

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Ozone Generators Suitable for Therapy

Cold Plasma Ozone Generators

The Beta II Cold Plasma Ozone Generator by Plasmafire International
The Beta II Cold Plasma Ozone Generator by Plasmafire International

The first cold plasma ozone generator was designed and constructed by Nikola Tesla. Plasmafire International, headed by Saul Pressman, re-engineered the first cold plasma generator suitable for therapeutic use by studying an old Tesla model. Today's true cold plasma ozone generators utilize pure oxygen as the input source, and produce a maximum concentration of about 5% ozone.

These generators are sold under the pretense that no heat is generated in production. Cold plasma generators have a very long useable life span, and are good all purpose ozone generators.

However, to quote the enlightened words of Den Rasplicka, owner of the immaculate

"Cold plasma generators are strikingly similar to Neon sign tubes. High voltage is applied to two poles between which one of noble gases will create cold plasma field (inside the cold plasma tube). Efficiency of the cold plasma tube is by no means 100%, there are number of different reasons for energy loses associated with cold plasma tube, however I would like to list just one as an example - losses due to random movement of charged particles in the gas which are bouncing of the walls of the tube. This random bouncing is virtually impossible to eliminate and it "eats up" the energy and it is releasing this energy in form of heat generated by impact of particles bombarding the walls of the cold plasma tube.
***** Your own test - find the neon sign and touch the tube to check if it is warmer then the temperature of the environment they are operated in. There will not be significant difference, however there is a difference.

"High voltage feeding the cold plasma tube with energy is produced by high voltage transformer. Transformers are (as well as light bulbs) known for their notorious inefficiency which is in literature stated usually around 30-40%. This is due to double conversion of the energy:

"Low voltage => magnetic field (primary winding)
Magnetic field => high voltage (secondary winding)

"On top of it, there is a resistance of wire creating the winding, resistance to magnetic flow, resistance to .....

"***** Your own test - find the neon sign and touch the high voltage (PROPERLY INSTALLED, ENCAPSULED - in other words SAFE) transformer to check if it is warmer then the temperature of the environment they are operated in. There will be significant difference.

"If you will take time and follow this theoretic path I outlined you must reach the conclusion that Cold Plasma is anything but "heat free"....."


"The fact that Cold Plasma Generators do not "burn out" does not necessary translates to "there is no heat generated". Generation of heat and generation of excessive heat resulting in "burn out" are two completely different things."

"Lets ASSUME for a while that "No Name" unit has 100% efficiency and these 95-100mA are FULLY "used up" to produce ozone, then the only logical conclusion is that Cold Plasma Unit has its efficiency just around 50% .... the rest must be the heat (which Cold Plasma Manufacturers deny to have problem with - and consequently - do not incorporate cooling fan to their design). After all, how can someone incorporate the cooling fan into the design of their product(s) if all marketing is based on "NO heat" claim?"

And last:

"There is no doubt in my mind that Cold Plasma ozone generators made their positive mark on the progress of ozone applications (including ozone therapies), however I believe the future belongs to advanced Corona Discharge systems or new combination (hybrid) ozonation systems."

So, cold plasma generators are very acceptable. However, it is debatable whether or not such units are superior-- in any way-- to other quality ozone technologies. The retail price for cold plasma generators is usually between $1700.00 - $3000.00 US.

UV Ozone Generators

UV ozone generators are constructed with tube chambers that use the same narrow-band ultraviolet light ( ~ 185 nanometers ) which is responsible for the sustenance of the ozone layer in the stratosphere of the Earth. The ozone layer is created by the bombardment of the Earth's atomosphere by the sun's radiation.

While standard UV ozone generators are more affordable, nearly all of them produce ozone at a 2% concentration or less.

Therapeutic Grade UV Ozone Generator
UV Pro 6800 Ozone Generator

"One of a Kind"
1 Chamber
Custom UV Generator
Retails for $1200.00

UV Pro 6800 UV Generator
12 UV Bulbs
Produces ozone at 6,800 mg/hr.
Retails for $2,129

Benefits: No nitrous oxide produced, therefore pure oxygen is not required. UV is the cleanest way to produce ozone. UV Ozone generation is the only ozone generator technology that produces Hydroxyl Radicals ( OH-)

Down-sides: No standard commercially available UV generators can achieve the minimum 5% concentration required for true therapeutic value ( we can now custom build an ozone generator for interested parties that produce 5% ozone ).

"Hot Spark" Corona Ozone Generators

Many variations of the "hot spark" coronal discharge method of ozone production exist, including medical grade and industrial grade ozone generators. However, these units CANNOT be used without 100% pure oxygen for therapuetic purposes, due to the high levels of nitrous oxide produced by the machines if fed with any "normal" air.

Corona Discharge Ozone Generator
Ozone Services Professional Setup

The OzoneLab™ OL80 Desktop Line
"Hot Spark" Corona Discharge
Generator Retails for $1400.00 - $2000

Professional Setup - OL80F/S offers the best high quality medical grade generators for experimental research use. However, full kits can be expensive, as the ozone generator itself costs a minimum of $1,400.00.

Benefits: Excellent for medical facilities with oxygen supplies and professional staff. "Hot spark" corona discharge machines are perfect for all medical applications If you buy from the right manufacturer.

Down-sides: Heavy maintenance is often required, especially with the lower quality units being sold ( with high price tags ); pure oxygen is required for any use in therapy. Quality units can be expensive.

"Cold Spark" Corona Discharge Ozone Generators

To our knowledge, the cold spark method is a relatively new engineering method. The cold spark method utilizes the same principle as the hot spark method, but the chamber is completely isolated from the spark which is responsible for the majority of nitrous oxide produced with the hot spark method. The result is that almost no ( ~ 0.003 PPM ) nitrous oxide is produced when using ambient air. This makes these machines safer to have around, even though, when using cold spark generators that produce concentrations above 3%, they must still be oxygen fed.

Why do they call them cold spark generators? Simply due to the fact that a spark is still used in the cells which produce the ozone.

Benefits: Cost effective engineering. A properly engineered product, with high grade components ( not the cells coming out of Tawain and China ) will last a minimum of five years.

Down-sides: While suitable for therapy purposes, many of these units cannot be said to be "medical grade", and some do not produce therapuetic levels of ozone. There are many variations of this technology available. Many of the cold spark units are very poorly designed and have a very short production life. Most of these units cannot produce a high enough concentration of ozone. Be certain that you research any model carefully before investing to ensure that therapeutic levels of ozone are actually produced.

Other Ozone Generators and Technologies Not Suitable for Therapy


PEM - Produces ozone using a polymer electrolysis membrane. A correctly engineered PEM unit can produce up to 20% ozone concentration ( by weight ) in water.

This is the newest method of ozone production, and the process is incredibly clean. No air or oxygen is required in the feed, as the units create ozone in purified water.

This technology shows the greatest promise for applications that require ozonated water.

Tabletop Water Ozonators

Table Top Water Ozonator

Ozonators such as the "Nature Kleen" cold spark ozonator, which produces ozone at a rate of 250 mg/hr., are very nice to have sitting in the kitchen to ozonate a glass of water or even ozonate fruits, vegetables and meat. However, these units do not produce NEARLY a high enough concentration of ozone for use in sauna therapy, bagging, or for other true therapeutic purposes.

The cold spark units that are engineered well sell for just under $300.00. Poorly manufactured units sell for as little as ~ $80.00.

Feel free to email us about the generators we are using for our research: .

Calculating Concentration of Ozone

It can be confusing to calculate the true ozone concentration based on different measurements used by different companies. Here is a general guide on converting concentrations:

When measuring ozone in Milligrams per Hour ( mg/hr ), the concentration cannot be determined unless the flow rate itself is known.

1 ug/ml = 1 mg/l = 1 g/m3 = 1 gamma
1 ml is = to 1 cc.

So, to determine the actual concentration if given mg/hr., one first must convert from mg/hr to mg/l. This is done by using the flow rate. If an ozone generator pumps out 250 mg/hr at a flow rate of 1 liter per minute, then:

The ozone generator produces 4.1667 mg/min ( 250 mg/hr divided by 60 ). Since we now know that we have 4.1667 milligrams of ozone each minute, and the flow rate is 1 liter each minute, we now have 4.1667 mg for each liter, or 4.1667 mg/l.

By looking at our chart, we now know that we have an ozone generator that produces 4.1667 ug/ml.

To determine the concentration, we can use the formula given by Saul Pressman:

0.5 % X 1.4 gm/l = 7 ug/ml

Only, let's convert it properly, first, by using the mathematical version with the correct units of measurement:

0.005 X 1400mg/l = 7ug/ml

X times 1400 = 4.1667
X = .00298 or 0.298%

View our recommended: Low Cost Ozone Therapy Generators

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